- Chemical Composition
- Mechanical Properties
- Other Designations (equivalent materials)
- Principal Design Features
- Heat Treatment
- Hot Working
- Cold Working
- Other Comments
1020 is a general purpose low tensile low hardenability carbon steel generally supplied in the cold drawn or turned and polished condition, with a typical tensile strength range 410 – 790 Mpa, and Brinell hardness range 119 – 235.
Characterised by excellent weldability, very good machinability with reasonable strength and very good ductility.
1020 due to its very low hardenability will through harden only in very small sections to relatively moderate strength levels, and is therefore generally used in the cold drawn or turned and polished condition. It can however be carburised achieving case hardnesses over Rc 65 with smaller sections, reducing as section size increases. Core strength will remain as supplied for all sections. Alternatively it can be carbonnitrided offering some advantages over standard carburising.
It will not respond satisfactorily to flame or induction hardening due to its low carbon content, nor to nitriding due to a lack of suitable alloying elements.
1020 is used extensively by all industry sectors for applications requiring good machinability or excellent weldability when high strength is not required plus lightly stressed carburised parts. It is also often used un-machined as supplied, its bright cold drawn or turned and polished finish being acceptable for many applications.
Typical applications are: Axles, General Engineering Parts and Components, Machinery Parts, Shafts etc. or Carburised: Camshafts, Light Duty Gears, Gudgon Pins, Ratchets, Spindles, Worm Gears etc.
Chemical Composition [ii]
Heat to 1100 oC – 1200 oC maximum, hold until temperature is uniform throughout the section and commence forging. Do not forge below 900 oC Finished forgings may be air cooled.
[ii] Heat Treatment Data
Heat to 870 oC – 910 oC hold until temperature is uniform throughout the section, and cool in furnace.
Pack, salt or gas carburise at 880 oC – 920 oC, holding for sufficient time to develop the required case depth and carbon content, followed by a suitable refining/hardening and tempering cycle to optimise case and core properties.
Slow cool from Carburising temperature and re-heat to 870 oC – 900 oC, hold until temperature is uniform throughout the section and quench as required in oil, water or brine.
Following core refining, re-heat to 760 oC – 780 oC, hold until temperature is uniform throughout the section and quench in water.
Temper immediately while still hand warm.
Tempering – After Carburising, Core Refining and Case Hardening
Re-heat to 150 oC – 200 oC, hold until temperature is uniform throughout the section, soak for 1 hour per 25 mm of section and cool in still air. NB. Tempering will improve the toughness of the case with only slight reduction in case hardness. It will also reduce the susceptibility to grinding cracks.
Heat to 890 oC – 940 oC hold until temperature is uniform throughout the section, soak for 10 – 15 minutes and cool in still air.
Heat to 650 oC – 700 oC hold until temperature is uniform throughout the section, soak for 1 hour per 25mm of section, and cool in still air.
Notes on Heat Treatment
Heating temperatures, rate of heating, cooling and soaking times will vary due to factors such as work piece size/shape, also furnace type employed, quenching medium and work piece transfer facilities etc.
Please consult your heat treater for best results.
1020 in the bright cold drawn or turned and polished as supplied condition has very good machinability and all operations such as turning, drilling, tapping, milling etc. can be carried out satisfactorily as per machine manufacturer’s recommendations for suitable tool type, feeds and speeds.
1020 has excellent weldability in the cold drawn or turned and polished as supplied condition, and can be readily welded by any of the standard welding processes.
NB. Welding in the carburised or heat treated condition is not recommended.
Low carbon electrodes are recommended.
Please consult your welding consumables supplier for suitable electrodes etc.
A pre-heat or post-heat is not generally required, however pre-heating larger sections can be beneficial as can a post-weld stress relieve if this is possible.
HddJetNozzle/Cherrington LLC (HDDJN/CLLC) believes the information provided is accurate and reliable. However no warranty of accuracy, completeness or reliability is given, nor will any responsibility be taken for errors or omissions.
- Interlloy 1020 Bright Carbon Steel
- Vanguard Steel LTD. Steel Product Manual
- Lincoln Electric Stainless Steel Welding Guild
- AZO Materials
This information is provided “as is” and HddJetNozzle/Cherrington LLC (HDDJN/CLLC) makes no warranty of any kind with respect to the subject matter or accuracy of the information contained herein. HDDJN/CLLC specifically disclaims all warranties, expressed, implied or otherwise, including without limitation, all warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose.
HDDJN/CLLC neither makes nor endorses any representations as to the suitability of any material as it relates to the design needs and criteria of the end user. All steel and/or alloy Mechanical Properties data sheets are for reference only as widely available in published AISI & SAE standards and specifications.
In no event shall HDDJN/CLLC be liable for any special, incidental, indirect or consequential damages of any kind or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data, profits, whether or not advised of the possibility of damage, and on any theory of liability, arising out of or in connection with the use of the information contained herein.
This publication may include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes may be periodically made to the information herein.
Chemical Composition(s) for materials used to manufacture the parts referenced in this website and/or by the Seller can be obtained by the Buyer requesting from the Seller a (lot specific) “Material Test Report”.
[i], [ii], Interlloy Pty Ltd